Illustrations in Oceanography

© L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2501 U.S.A.

        This website makes available some one-page illustrations of topics in Oceanography and Marine Sciences.  They are formatted for use in lectures and presentations or as course handouts.   They in no way substitute for a textbook, because no attempt is made at a complete treatment of all topics.   Many of the illustrations are taken directly from Railsback's Some Fundamentals of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, and the content of this collection therefore has a strong geochemical bias.

        The pages are available here independently in pdf and jpeg formats.  Users of these illustrations in Powerpoint lectures to students are reminded that some of the illustrations carry a lot of information.  Users can customize their lectures by using Powerpoint's "basic shapes" tools to add filled rectangles that conceal a part or parts of any given illustration.  Removal or reduction of the rectangles can then unveil more of that illustration in successive Powerpoint "slides".

        Educators are welcome to use these documents in their lectures and presentations; a message to Railsback reporting such use would be appreciated.  Permission from Railsback is required for reproduction of any of these documents.

        The most recent additions occurred on 19 February 2017. 

 

 

Table of Contents:  

    The Geography and Geology of the Oceans
       The Geography of the Oceans
       The Geology of the Oceans
       The Black Sea

       Ocean circulation: winds, surface currents, and deep circulation

       Solutions and aqueous speciation of ions
       Chemistry of seawater / marine chemistry / chemical oceanography
       Solutions, CO2, HCO3-, CO32- and CaCO3

       Marine biology and Ecology

       Isotopic geochemistry
       Isotopic records of the Cenozoic
       The Quaternary

       Appendix: Contextual Materials

 


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Title of DocumentPortrait-
format
  pdf
Portrait-
format
  jpeg
Landscape-
format
  pdf
Landscape-
format
  jpeg

The Geography of the Oceans

Straits I: width and depth

    pdf jpeg

Straits II: connections of the major ocean basins

    pdf jpeg

Straits III: closure of the largest gulfs, bays, and marginal seas

    pdf jpeg

A cross-section through the North Atlantic to scale: no vertical exaggeration

      jpeg

What is an ocean, and how many does Earth have?

    pdf jpeg

The Geology of the Oceans

Plate tectonics: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries

    pdf jpeg

Mid-ocean ridges

    pdf jpeg

A mid-ocean ridge vent or "black smoker", Part I

    pdf jpeg

A mid-ocean ridge vent or "black smoker", Part II

    pdf jpeg

Oceanic volcanic features: an Euler diagram

    pdf jpg

Aseismic ridges vs. chains of ocean islands and/or seamounts

    pdf jpg

Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic marine ecosystems: the sea surface, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps

    pdf jpeg

Possible causes of sea-level change

    pdf jpeg

The Black Sea

The Black Sea I: Geography

    pdf jpeg

The Black Sea II: A schematic cross-section

    pdf jpeg

The Black Sea IIIa: Variation with depth

    pdf jpeg

The Black Sea IIIb: Chemical variation with depth

    pdf jpeg

Ocean Circulation

  • Winds that drive surface currents:
  •        

    Global climate zones: a seven-page work-up

        pdf  

    Global climate zones: one detailed page from the above

        pdf jpeg

    Variation of atmospheric pressure between and within climatic belts

        pdf jpeg

    The Trade Winds and Westerlies wind belts

        pdf jpeg

  • Surface circulation: the ocean currents:
  •        

    Gyres of currents: building a gyre

        pdf jpeg

    Some origins of eddies in the (northern hemisphere) oceans

        pdf jpeg

    Cold-core rings and warm-core rings

        pdf jpeg

    Gyres of currents, and eddies

        pdf jpeg

    Gyres of currents, idealized and eddified

        pdf jpeg

    The surface currents of the oceans I: a very simple map

        pdf jpg

    The surface currents of the oceans II: a less simple map

        pdf jpg

    The surface currents of the oceans III: NASA imagery

        pdf jpg

    The surface currents of the oceans IV: seasonal countercurrents in the eastern Pacific and Atlantic

        pdf jpg

    The surface currents of the oceans V: the Atlantic conspiracy

        pdf jpg

    ENSO (El Niño) events

        pdf jpeg

    The Ekman spiral, dynamic topography, and coastal and equatorial upwelling

        pdf jpeg

    The Ekman spiral, dynamic topography, and geostrophic currents

        pdf jpeg

    Interactions of currents, tides, and waves

        pdf jpeg

    Interactions of currents, tides, and waves II

        pdf jpeg

  • Deep circulation:
  •        

    The thermocline

        pdf jpeg

    Density of seawater at the sea surface

        pdf jpeg

    Why density of seawater increases with salinity

        pdf jpeg

    Expressions for the deep circulation of the oceans

        pdf jpeg

    Two models of deep ocean circulation

        large pdf jpeg

    Models of deep ocean circulation in the 2010s

        pdf jpeg

    The Warm Saline Deep Water hypothesis

        pdf jpeg

    Solutions and aqueous speciation of ions

    Speciation of cations in aqueous solution I

    pdf jpeg pdf jpeg

    Speciation of cations in aqueous solution II

    pdf jpeg pdf jpeg

    Aqueous speciation of some hard cations across the periodic table

    pdf   pdf jpeg

    The typical solutes of geochemical solutions (i.e., of natural waters)

        pdf jpeg

    Solutions, CO2, HCO3-, CO32- and CaCO3

    Speciation of inorganic carbon in aqueous solution

    pdf jpeg pdf jpeg    

    Variation in the dissociation constants of H2CO3 and HCO3- with temperature and salinity

        pdf jpeg    

    PCO2 of atmospheres and pH and HCO3 - concentration of solutions

          jpeg

    Carbonate equilibria in solutions exposed to the atmosphere I

        pdf jpeg

    Carbonate equilibria in solutions exposed to the atmosphere II

        pdf jpeg

    The carbon, and carbonate, cycle

          jpeg

    Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part I: a plot

        pdf jpeg

    Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part Ia: an inset

        pdf jpeg

    Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part Ib: an inset

        pdf jpeg

    Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part II: observations

        pdf jpeg

    The reaction for equilibrium of CaCO3 with natural waters

          jpeg

    Reactions for the dissolution of CaCO3

          jpeg

    Reactions for the precipitation of CaCO3

    pdf jpeg pdf jpeg

    Degassing of CO2 and precipitation of CaCO3

          jpeg

    Adsorption of hydrated Mg2+ on calcite as an inhibitor of calcite growth

        pdf jpeg
     

    Geochemistry of some natural waters

    The typical solutes of geochemical solutions (i.e., of natural waters)

        pdf jpeg

    Chemistry of lacustrine waters

    pdf jpeg pdf jpeg

    Size and salinity of lakes, and the ocean(s) I

        pdf jpeg

    Size and salinity of lakes, and the ocean(s) II

        pdf jpeg

    Relationships of lakes and the ocean to their drainage basins: a plot of hydrologic dominance I

        pdf jpeg

    Relationships of lakes and the ocean to their drainage basins: a plot of hydrologic dominance II

        pdf jpeg
     

    Chemistry of seawater / marine chemistry / chemical oceanography

    The twenty-four most abundant solutes in seawater

          jpeg

    Marine nutrient cycles I: Nitrogen

        pdf jpeg

    Marine nutrient cycles II: Phosphorous

        pdf jpeg

    Marine nutrient cycles III: Silicon

        pdf jpeg

    Marine nutrient cycles IV: Iron

        pdf jpeg

    Iron as a limiting nutrient in the ocean

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans I: Nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silica)

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans Ia: Nutrients and biological productivity

          jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans II: Dissolved oxygen (O2)

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans III: Carbon dioxide (CO2)

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans IIIa: Carbon dioxide and the carbonate compensation depth (CCD)

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans IV: Oxidation of sinking organic particles - a summary

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in the oceans

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans V: Scavenged ions

        pdf jpeg

    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans VI: The conservative solutes

        pdf jpeg

    Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater I: an oceanographic perspective

          jpeg

    Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater II: a geochemical perspective

          jpeg

    Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater III: a combined perspective

          jpeg

    Box models of the long-term carbon cycle

          jpeg

    Boron in marine calcite as an indicator of ancient PCO2

        pdf jpeg

    Marine biology and ecology

    Isotopic records of the oceans

    Isotopic geochemistry

    Isotopes

        pdf jpeg

    Isotopes - the basics, and why we care

          jpeg

    Commonly used stable isotopes

    pdf   pdf jpeg

    The delta symbol in stable isotope geochemistry

        pdf jpeg

    A simple mass spectrometer

        pdf jpeg

    An explanation of why isotopic fractionation varies with precipitation rate and temperature

        pdf jpeg

    Oxgyen isotope composition of calcite as a function of temperature and water composition

    pdf jpeg pdf jpeg

    A graphic explanation of fractionation of oxygen isotopes between water and calcite

    pdf   pdf jpeg

    Oxygen isotope fractionation in the precipitation of calcite and aragonite

        pdf jpeg

    The "clumped isotope" paleotemperature method for carbonates

        pdf jpeg

    The δ13C record of marine limestones

          jpeg

    The δ18O record of marine limestones

          jpeg

    Correlation of charge and δ13C in Earth-surface C-bearing materials

    pdf   pdf jpeg

    Half-lives of radioactive atoms and measurement of age

        pdf jpeg

    Decay systems commonly used in radiometric dating

        pdf jpeg

    From deep-sea sediments to paleoclimate records

        pdf jpeg

    Marine isotope stages and substages

        pdf jpeg

    Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic global cooling and glaciation

          jpeg

    Terminology and timing of some later Quaternary climatic events

          jpeg

    Five million years of climate and hominin history

          jpeg

    The Paleolithic in the context of oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic cooling and glaciation

          jpeg

    The last 150,000 years of human and glacial history

          jpeg

    The last glacial cycle in marine sediments, Greenland ice, and Antarctic Ice

        pdf jpeg

    Terminology and timing of some later Quaternary climatic events

          jpeg

    Holocene ice core isotopic records, climatic events, and human history

          jpeg

    Democracy in the context of human and glacial history

          jpeg

    Northern Hemisphere climate over the last two thousand years

          jpeg

    The Quaternary

    Milankovitch cycles I: eccentricity of Earth's orbit, seasonality, and extent of glaciation

        pdf jpeg

    Milankovitch cycles II: tilt of Earth's axis, seasonality, and extent of glaciation

        pdf jpeg

    Milankovitch cycles III: precession of the seasons, seasonality, and extent of glaciation

        pdf jpeg

    Wisonsinan, Illinoian, and earlier glacial deposits of North America

          jpeg

    AD, CE, BC, BP, calendar years, radiocarbon years, and all that

        pdf jpeg

    Calibration of radiocarbon dates

        pdf jpeg

    Calibration of radiocarbon dates II

        pdf jpeg

    Radiometric dating via U-series disequilibrium I

          jpeg

    Radiometric dating via U-series disequilibrium II

          jpeg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        
             

    Contextual Materials

           

    Basic Geology

    Ways of understanding I

        pdf jpeg

    Ways of understanding II

        pdf jpeg

    Rocks, Part I

        pdf jpeg

    Rocks, Part II - the rock "cycle"

        pdf jpeg

    Rocks, Part III

        pdf jpeg

    Origins of melts and magmas I

        pdf jpeg

    Origins of melts and magmas II

        pdf jpeg

    Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks

        pdf jpeg

    The origin of sedimentary rocks

        pdf jpeg

    The origin of siliciclastic and biochemical sedimentary rocks

        pdf jpeg

    Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks I: Proceses

        pdf jpeg

    Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks II: Possible pathways

        pdf jpeg

    Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks III: Compaction

        pdf jpeg

    Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks IV: Cementation

        pdf jpeg

    Steno's princples of sedimentary layers

        pdf jpeg

    Unconformities and their significance to geologic time

        pdf jpeg

    Movement of facies of sediment with rising sea level

          jpeg

    Movement of sedimentary facies with change of sea level

        pdf jpeg

    Movement of sedimentary facies with change of sea level, and sequences

        pdf jpeg

    Three thoughts about fossils

        pdf jpeg

    The Bigger Picture

    Earth at a glance

        pdf jpeg

    Plate tectonics: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries

        pdf jpeg

    Sources of geological information in the field

        pdf jpeg

    Large-scale flow in Earth Systems

        pdf jpeg

    The age of the Earth and our solar system

          jpeg

    The standard geologic time scale

        pdf jpeg

    A Phanerozoic paleoenvironmental timeline

        pdf jpeg

    The size of things

        pdf jpeg

    Human awareness of space and time
        (a review of how science has changed human awareness of the world, best viewed in .ppt)

     
    9-slide
    PPT file
    12-page
    pdf
    jpeg

    Some guidelines for scientific research

        pdf jpeg
             
     

    Terms of use: Academic instructors are encouraged to use the material above in their classes, either as in-class illustrations or as handouts. Permission from the author for such use is not required, but notice to the author of such use is appreciated. Permission from the author is required for use in publications, Web-based documents, or other non-classroom use.

     


     


     

    e-mail to Bruce Railsback (rlsbk@gly.uga.edu)
    Railsback's main web page
    UGA Geology Department web page
     

     

     

     


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